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|Category:||Drug Abuse Test Multiple||Format:||4 Multiple Panel|
|Shelf Life:||24 Months||Application:||Multiple Drug Test|
|Cut-off:||1000ng, 500ng, 300ng, 200ng||Material:||Membrane|
4 Panel Urine Drug Test,
4 Mm Strip Inside Drug Abuse Test
4 Panel Drug Test is competitive binding, lateral flow immunochromatographic assay for qualitative and simultaneous detection of Amphetamine, Oxazepam, Cocaine, Cannabinoids, Methamphetamine, Morphine, Oxycodone, EDDP, Secobarbital, Buprenorphine, Methylenedioxymethamphetamine, Phencyclidine, Propoxyphene , Nortriptyline and Methadone in human urine.
The test may yield positive results for the prescription drugs Buprenorphine, Oxazepam, Secobarbital and Oxycodone when taken at or above prescribed doses. It is not intended to distinguish between prescription use or abuse of these drugs. Clinical consideration and professional judgment should be exercised with any drug of abuse test result, particularly when the preliminary result is positive. The test provides only preliminary test results. A more specific alternative chemical method may be used in order to obtain a confirmed analytical result. GC/MS or LC/MS is the preferred confirmatory method. For
If refrigerated, allow the test device to come to room temperature, 59-86°F (15-30°C) prior to testing. 1) Remove the Clarity Multi-Drug Urine Test Dip Card from the foil wrapper. 2) Fill a specimen cup (not provided) with fresh urine. Dip the Clarity Multi-Drug Urine Test Dip Card into the urine with the arrow end pointing toward the urine. Do not cover the urine over the MAX (maximum) line. You may leave the Clarity Multi-Drug Urine Test Dip Card in the urine or you may take the Dip Card out after a minimum of 15 seconds in the urine and lay the Dip Card flat on a non-absorptive clean surface. 3) Read results at 5 minutes and do not throw away the urine. Urine used may be needed for confirmation testing.
The test is intended for use as the process to provide health care professionals and consumers with information concerning the presence or absence of the above stated drugs in a urine sample.
6-Monoacetylmorphine (6-MAM) or 6-acetylmorphine (6-AM) is one of three active metabolites of heroin (diacetylmorphine), the others being morphine and the much less active 3-monoacetylmorphine (3-MAM). 6-MAM is rapidly created from heroin in the body, and then is either metabolized into morphine and excreted in the urine. 6-MAM remains in the urine for no more than 24 hours. The presence of 6-MAM guarantees that heroin was in fact used as recently as within the last day. 6-MAM is naturally found in the brain, but in such small quantities that detection of this compound in urine virtually guarantees that heroin has recently been consumed.
Benzodiazepines are medications that are frequently prescribed for the symptomatic treatment of anxiety and sleep disorders. They produce their effects via specific receptors involving a neurochemical called gamma aminobutyric acid (GABA). Because they are safer and more effective, Benzodiazepines have replaced Barbiturates in the treatment of both anxiety and insomnia. Benzodiazepines are also used as sedatives before some surgical and medical procedures, and for the treatment of seizure disorders and alcohol withdrawal.
Risk of physical dependence increases if Benzodiazepines are taken regularly (e.g., daily) for more than a few months, especially at higher than normal doses. Stopping abruptly can bring on such symptoms as trouble sleeping, gastrointestinal upset, feeling unwell, loss of appetite, sweating, trembling, weakness, anxiety and changes in perception. Only trace amounts (less than 1%) of most Benzodiazepines are excreted unaltered in the urine; most of the concentration in urine is conjugated drug. The detection period for the Benzodiazepines in the urine is 3-7 days.
1.3.25 Ethyl Glucuronide
Ethyl Glucuronide (ETG) is a metabolite of ethyl alcohol which is formed in the body by glucuronidation following exposure to ethanol, such as by drinking alcoholic beverages. It is used as a biomarker to test for ethanol use and to monitor alcohol abstinence in situations where drinking is prohibited, such as in the military, in professional monitoring programs (health professionals, attorneys, airline pilots in recovery from addictions), in schools, in liver transplant clinics, or in recovering alcoholic patients. ETG can be measured in urine up to approximately 80 hours after ethanol is ingested. ETG is a more accurate indicator of the recent exposure to alcohol than measuring for the presence of ethanol itself.
Acetaminophen is one of the most commonly used drugs, yet it is also an important cause of serious liver injury. Acetaminophen is the generic name of a drug found in many common brand name over-the-counter (OTC) products, such as Tylenol, and Prescription (Rx) products, such as Vicodin and Percocet. Acetaminophen is an important drug, and its effectiveness in relieving pain and fever is widely known. Unlike other commonly used drugs to reduce pain and fever (e.g., nonsteroidalantinflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), such as aspirin, ibuprofen, and naproxen), at recommended doses acetaminophen does not cause adverse effects, such as stomach discomfort and bleeding, and acetaminophen is considered safe when used according to the directions on its OTC or Rx labeling. However, taking more than the recommended amount can cause liver damage, ranging from abnormalities in liver function blood tests, to acute liver failure, and even death. Many cases of overdose are caused by patients inadvertently taking more than the recommended dose (i.e., 4 grams a day) of a particular product, or by taking more than one product containing acetaminophen (e.g., an OTC product and an Rx drug containing acetaminophen). The mechanism of liver injury is not related to acetaminophen itself, but to the production of a toxic metabolite. The toxic metabolite binds with liver proteins, which cause cellular injury. The ability of the liver to remove this metabolite before it binds to liver protein influences the extent of liver injury.
Cathinone, also known as benzoylethanamine, or β-keto-amphetamine is a monoamine alkaloid found in the shrub Catha edulis (Khat) and is chemically similar to ephedrine, Cathine, methCathinone and other amphetamines. Cathinone has been found to stimulate the release of dopamine and inhibit the re-uptake of epinephrine, norepinephrine, and serotonin in the Central Nervous System (CNS). These neurotransmitters are all considered monoamines and share the general structure of an aromatic ring and an amine group attached by a two-carbon separator. Internationally, cathinone is a Schedule I drug under the Convention on Psychotropic Substances. Cathinone has been shown to selectively metabolize into R,S-(-)-norephedrine and cathine. The reduction of the ketone group in cathinone will produce cathine.
Cathine, also known as d-norpseudoephedrine, is a psychoactive drug of the phenethylamine and amphetamine chemical classes which acts as a stimulant. Along with cathinone, it is found naturally in Catha edulis (Khat), and contributes to its overall effects. It has approximately 10-14% the potency of amphetamine.Cathine is a Schedule III drug under the Convention on Psychotropic Substances.
Detection of Cathine in urine thus provides evidence of presence of Cathinone and/ or Cathine use, by the person, whose urine is tested.
1.3.28Lysergic Acid Diethylamide
Lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD) is a white powder or a clear, colorless liquid. LSD is manufactured from lysergic acid which occurs naturally in the ergot fungus that grows on wheat and rye. It is a Schedule I controlled substance, available in liquid, powder, tablet (microdots), and capsule form. LSD is recreationally used as a hallucinogen for its ability to alter human perception and mood. LSD is primarily used by oral administration, but can be inhaled, injected, and transdermally applied. LSD is a non-selective 5-HT agonist, may exert its hallucinogenic effect by interacting with 5-HT 2Areceptors as a partial agonist and modulating the NMDA receptor-mediated sensory, perceptual, affective and cognitive processes. LSD mimics 5-HT at 5-HT 1A receptors, producing a marked slowing of the firing rate of serotonergic neurons. LSD has a plasma half-life of 2.5-4 hours. Metabolites of LSD include N-desmethyl-LSD, hydroxy-LSD, 2-oxo-LSD, and 2-oxo-3-hydroxy-LSD .These metabolites are all inactive. LSD use can typically be detected in urine for periods of 2-5 days.
1.3.30 3, 4-methylenedioxypyrovalerone
3, 4-methylenedioxypyrovalerone (MDPV) is a psychoactive recreational drug with stimulant properties which acts as a norepinephrine-dopamine reuptake inhibitor (NDRI). It was first developed in the 1960s by a team at BoehringerIngelheim. MDPV remained an obscure stimulant until around 2004 when it was reportedly sold as a designer drug. Products labeled as bath salts containing MDPV were previously sold as recreational drugs in gas stations and convenience stores in the United States, similar to the marketing for Spice and K2 as incense.
MDPV is the 3,4-methylenedioxy ring-substituted analog of the compound pyrovalerone, developed in the 1960s, which has been used for the treatment of chronic fatigue and as an anorectic, but caused problems of abuse and dependence. However, despite its structural similarity, the effects of MDPV bear little resemblance to other methylenedioxyphenylalkylamine derivatives such as 3,4-methylenedioxy-N-methylamphetamine (MDMA), instead producing primarily stimulant effects with only mild entactogenic qualities.
MDPV undergoes CYP450 2D6, 2C19, 1A2, and COMT phase 1 metabolism (liver) into methylcatechol and pyrrolidine, which in turn are glucuronated (uridine 5'-diphospho-glucuronosyl-transferase) allowing it to be excreted by the kidneys, with only a small fraction of the metabolites being excreted into the stools. No free pyrrolidine will be detected in the urine.
Methylphenidate (trade names Concerta, Methylin, Medikinet, Ritalin, Equasym XL, Quillivant XR, Metadate) is a central nervous system (CNS) stimulant of the phenethylamine and piperidine classes that is used in the treatment of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), postural orthostatic tachycardia syndrome and narcolepsy. Methylphenidate has been studied and researched for over 50 years and has a very good efficacy and safety record for the treatment of ADHD. It was first licensed by the U.S.Food and Drug Administration (FDA) in 1955 for treating what was then known as hyperactivity. Prescribed to patients beginning in 1960, the drug has become increasingly heavily prescribed since the 1990s, when the diagnosis of ADHD itself became more widely accepted.
ADHD and other similar conditions are believed to be linked to sub-performance of the dopamine and norepinephrinefunctions in the brain, primarily in the prefrontal cortex, responsible for self-regulatory function (e.g., inhibition, motivation, and memory) and executive function (e.g., reasoning, organizing, problemsolving,and planning).]Methylphenidate's mechanism of action involves the inhibition of catecholamine reuptake, primarily as a dopamine reuptake inhibitor. Methylphenidate acts by blocking the dopamine transporter and norepinephrine transporter, leading to increased concentrations of dopamine and norepinephrine within the synaptic cleft. This effect in turn leads to increased neurotransmission of dopamine and norepinephrine. Methylphenidate is also a 5HT1A receptor agonist.
INTERPRETATION OF RESULTS
(Please refer to the illustration above)
NEGATIVE:* A colored line appears in the Control region (C) and colored lines appears in the Test region (T). This negative result means that the concentrations in the urine sample are below the designated cut-off levels for a particular drug tested.
*NOTE: The shade of the colored lines(s) in the Test region (T) may vary. The result should be considered negative whenever there is even a faint line.
POSITIVE: A colored line appears in the Control region (C) and NO line appears in the Test region (T). The positive result means that the drug concentration in the urine sample is greater than the designated cut-off for a specific drug.
INVALID: No line appears in the Control region (C). Insufficient specimen volume or incorrect procedural techniques are the most likely reasons for Control line failure. Read the directions again and repeat the test with a new test card. If the result is still invalid, contact your manufacturer.
If you work in a laboratory, you should perform quality control testing and you should read this section.
A procedural control is included in the test. A colored line appearing in the control line region (C) is considered an internal procedural control. It confirms sufficient sample volume, adequate membrane wicking and correct procedural technique. Control standards are not supplied with this kit. However, it is recommended that positive and negative controls be tested as good laboratory practice to confirm the test procedure and to verify proper test performance. Please contact our Technical Support at 1-877-485-7877 for information on which controls work with the Clarity Multi-Drug Urine Test Dip Card.
A drug-free urine pool was spiked with CLO at the following concentrations: 0 ng/mL, 5 ng/mL, 7.5ng/mL, 10ng/mL, 12.5ng/mL, 15ng/mL and 30ng/mL.The result demonstrates >99% accuracy at 50% above and 50% below the cut-off concentration. The data are summarized below:
|- Concentration||Percent of||n||Visual Result|
Contact Person: Jerry Meng